Microorganisms in the ocean

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 Microorganisms in the ocean are active and growing. They play a crucial part in preserving the health of the oceans and the habitats of other marine animals. Some, though, can turn hazardous when they come into touch with people. They could bring about illnesses, infections, or even decease. Here are 17 of them, along with brief summaries for each.

Vibrio Bacteria:

Several bodies of water close to the coast have the Vibrio bacteria species. Between May and October, when the water temperature rises, they become more prevalent. These microorganisms have the potential to sicken people by infecting them. Consuming raw or undercooked oysters and other seafood is one of the most frequent ways to contract the disease.

Another way is through the skin which has wounds that are exposed to the water. Those that contract these bacteria recover in various ways. Some people might recover totally in a few days. Some people might require serious medical attention. But some people might require amputations, and some might even pass away.


Blue-green algae were formerly thought to be a kind of cyanobacteria. They are now categorized as a specific type of bacteria, though. Through photosynthesis, this species can transform nitrogen into substances like oxygen that are necessary for life. They do well in water that is calmer, like lakes or ponds close to the coast.

Cyanobacteria are especially helpful in biotechnology studies where they aid in analysis. However, cyanobacteria are also renowned for their toxic blooms (cyanotoxins). Drinking water sources that contain the toxin can induce ALS (motor neuron disease) or possibly death in susceptible individuals.

Legionella Bacteria:

The US experienced an outbreak of this particular bacteria in 1976, which resulted in 221 persons being extremely ill and 34 of them passing away. In lakes, rivers, streams, brackish water, or other bodies of water, Legionella bacteria thrive. The illness they spread is known as legionnaire's disease. It is a severe case of pneumonia with flu-like symptoms.

The illness can still be lethal even though it cannot be passed from person to person. Infected people may have a lower quality of life because they may continue to feel exhausted all the time or develop neurological symptoms months after an outbreak. This bacteria is thought to be a source of bioweapons in addition to being a disease-causing agent.

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Aeromonas hydrophila Bacteria:

This kind of bacteria, which is most frequently found in warm waters, is harmful to both marine life and people. Given their capacity to infiltrate the bloodstream and infect the first organ they come across, they can even be regarded as hazardous. They discharge poisons that cause tissue harm.

These bacteria are also resistant to generic antibiotics. They do not, however, assault healthy people. Fish exposed to them become unwell, and humans may consume seafood, vegetables, or meats that contain this species. They could result in eczema or diarrhea in people.

Anabaena circinalis Bacteria:

This bacteria species has similar properties to cyanobacteria since they can also convert nitrogen into other necessary compounds. Anabena circinalis may develop algae blooms that may hurt plants and creatures living nearby the area.

In addition, this species is well known for using anesthetics to treat a variety of medical conditions. The bacteria are employed in the US to create chemical weapons since they also contain poisons. However, in the year 2010, these chemical weapons were destroyed.

Escherichia coli Bacteria:

E. coli is a relatively well-known name for these bacteria. According to studies, the majority of E. coli strains are not harmful. In fact, research demonstrates that these bacteria may release vitamin K2 when it locates a host. Bone and organ tissue formation are aided by vitamin K2.

Other strains, on the other hand, may have a high risk of contaminating food and producing food poisoning. In terms of food safety, E. coli is one of the typical bacteria that prompt product recalls. They can also spread illnesses like meningitis, Chron's disease, urinary infections, and others. Vomiting, fever, and diarrhea are symptoms.

Vibrio vulnificus Bacteria:

The majority of this bacterium can be found in warm, shallow saltwater close to the coast. The East and West Coasts of the US are where this bacterium is most prevalent. Similar to the germs that cause cholera is the Vibrio vulnificus bacteria.

Additionally, the bacteria are widespread in plankton, shellfish, clams, oysters, and clams. They can therefore seriously infect both people and other animals. The bacterium can result in wound infections and necrotizing fasciitis. They were one of the main causes of the survivors of the Asian tsunami's deteriorating health.

Shigella Bacteria:

Shigella bacteria are actually a group of bacteria. They are responsible for more than 500,000 diarrhea diseases around the world. When exposed to the bacteria, symptoms include fever, abdominal pain, and diarrhea which could include blood.

Other side effects from the infections caused by shigella include seizures which are common in children and arthritis that can last for years. Infection to the blood streams is also possible although it can only happen to those who already have a weak immune system such as those who have cancer, malnutrition, or HIV.

Thiomargarita namibiensis Bacteria:

The Namibian Ocean contains a type of bacteria that scientists believe to be the largest bacteria to ever exist. Due to the sulfur that is present in their cells and produces a pearly sheen when exposed to light, they are also known as "sulfur pearls."

This specific bacteria aids in keeping the water from smelling like rotten eggs. The bacteria are currently being studied in order to better understand them, and scientists are hopeful that one day they may be able to employ them to clean up runoff in ocean areas.

Prochlorococcus Bacteria:

The pigmentation of Prochlorococcus bacteria differs from that of other bacteria in their family and is relatively modest. According to some reports, bacteria are the most prevalent photosynthetic creature on the planet. As the largest oceanic generators of oxygen, they have a significant impact.

They can absorb blue light that can penetrate the ocean up to 200 meters because of their coloration. This means that these bacteria can also endure in 200 meters of water. The bacteria contribute to the very beginning of the ocean food chain and account for 20% of the world's oxygen production.

Synechococcus Bacteria:

There are still a lot of aspects about these bacteria that are unclear. On the surface of water that receives a lot of light, this species of bacteria is frequently found. Both waters with a high nutrition level and waters with a low nutrient content can support them.

Synechococcus has a strong rate of growth, whereas its number is extremely low. Temperature, light, nutrients, genes, and virus mortality are all growth-promoting variables. In addition to surviving in ocean water, they are also prevalent in rivers when nitrate and phosphate levels are high.

Trichodesmium Bacteria:

The bacteria tricodesmium is also referred to as sea sawdust. They are widespread in nutrient-poor tropical and subtropical ocean waters. In the Red Sea, this particular bacteria flourishes.

They have the capacity to transform nitrogen into ammonium, a nutrient required for the survival of other species. This particular bacterial group can produce blooms on water and is visible to the naked eye. As sources of fresh nitrogen in environments deficient in nutrients, bacteria are essential to the marine food chain.

Pelagibacter Bacteria:

The largest population of these bacteria is currently known to exist worldwide, having originally been discovered in the waters of the Sargasso Sea. All around the planet, they can survive in both fresh and salt water. The bacteria aid in the recycling of dissolved organic carbon in the water.

They make up around 50% of the cells that reside in the temperate ocean water during the summer when the temperature is higher. They, therefore, play a significant part in the carbon cycle on Earth.

Shewanella haliotis Bacteria:

The bacteria were initially discovered in the remains of South Korean abalones, an edible sea snails. They have an impact on marine life and flourish in ocean water. As a result, they can spread to humans who eat raw seafood. The soft tissues are impacted by the infection they bring on. Those who are impacted may have a fever and require weeks of intensive hospital care and treatments.

Bacteroidetees bacteria:

The bacteria are thought to be beneficial and are found in ocean water. They can also be found on animal skin and guts in addition to water. However, in a marine environment, microorganisms aid in the breakdown and consumption of polymer compounds, including plastics. As a result, they contribute significantly to the breakdown of polymers found in ocean waters and are involved in the oceans' carbon cycle.

Vibrio anguillarum Bacteria:

All around the world, this specific kind of bacteria thrives in late summer brackish or salt water. They are the cause of vibriosis or red pest of eels' sickness. They mostly affect salmon fish and can result in a number of strange body part enlargements. Although fish illness has been treated with antibiotics, the bacteria have developed a resistance to them. These days, a vaccine is utilized to prevent them.

Vibrio harveyi Bacteria:

These microorganisms are found in tropical marine waters. They are the cause of the illness's luminous vibriosis. Farmed prawns are particularly affected by this disease. In addition, the bacteria are to blame for the occurrence of milky oceans. The phenomena cause the ocean to create a blue glow that is visible at night. A 16.000 km2 area can be covered by the radiance.

Even though there are many microorganisms in the ocean that may cause immense danger to humans, they are still needed in order to keep ocean waters healthy.


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